Production & Supply Chain Department
Dispensing Outpatient Pharmacy
The dispensing unit encompasses most of the hospital departments; the emergency department, daycare, oncology, multi-specialty clinics, and the in-patient department. The pharmacist’s role in the dispensing unit is all about converting a prescription order to an individualized medication supply that is both effective and safe to the patient. In order to achieve this task, the pharmacist has to follow the path of these steps:
- Initial checking of the patient’s name, medical record number, and demographics (e.g. height, weight, body surface area …etc.)
- Making an independent judgment to ensure the medications are appropriate to the patient in terms of efficacy and safety.
- Calculating medication(s)’ doses in accordance to patient, taking into account the patient’s medical and family history, drug allergies (if present) or any possible drug-drug or drug-food interactions.
- Printing a label for each medication that includes the appropriate dose, dose frequency, route of administration, and counseling points.
The dispensing area is subdivided into another units:
- Checking area: Pharmacists perform a technical check on the accuracy of the information printed on the label and the contents of the medication package.
- Extemporaneous dispensing: Compounding medication in an extemporaneous form in case a commercial product is unavailable or unsuitable for the patient.
Intravenous Admixture Pharmacy
IV admixture is the preparation of pharmaceutical drugs and parenteral nutrition in a clean room inside most up-dated isolators that provides the best sterile and safe environment for compounding supportive and hazardous medication.
The IV pharmacist follows available guidelines and recommended precautions to achieve the best practice and prepare a medication that is stable, sterile, with highest purity (free from physical contaminants like precipitates, chemical contaminants and air bubbles) with the best quality to ensure patient safety and help the patient to minimize the hospital stay.
US pharmacopeia (USP), American society of health system pharmacists (ASHP) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines are intended to help compounding pharmacist to prepare high quality medication and reduce the potential for harm to patients and consequences for compounding personnel.
Intravenous Verification and Checking Pharmacy
Intravenous verification is a process where medications are reviewed on system via CPOE (Computerized Provider Order Entry) to ensure correct dose, diluents, volume, rate and duration of newly added medications and dispensing, printing labels to enter IV admixture room to be prepared.
Intravenous checking allows more comprehensive evaluation of accuracy of prepared doses where pharmacist can confirm correct volume, type of fluid and ensure that doses are clear and free from rubber or plastic. In part as a healthcare provider, IV pharmacist ensures that urgently added medications to be delivered to patient on time. He also exercises his role in error prevention and provides the best quality of patient safety.
Extemporaneous Preparation Unit Pharmacy
Extemporaneous unit is responsible for compounding preparations of acceptable strength and quality to fill the pediatric drug doses shortage.
There is a need to fill the gap between the physician’s requirements and available drugs on the market for children, so it is our role to fill this gap and provide safe and accurate dose of drugs.
The design of an ideal pediatric formulation needs to consider the following factors:
- Producing minimal impact on the lifestyle of the child, manifested in an adjusted dosage frequency and a palatable product.
- Provision of individualized dosing or dose banding appropriate for effective therapy.
- Convenient and reliable administration.
- Robust production process at minimal cost.
Our role is to innovate new formulations to prepare dosage form suitable to our pediatric patients with high quality and safety.
The pharmacy department comprises several types of medication stores:
The main store, The sub stores and Pyxis Medstation.
- The main store contains large quantities of medication stocks which are transferred susequently to the sub stores
- Sub stores keep a daily stock and this is where medication is prepared for final dispensing to each patient.
- Pyxis Medstation is an automated machine located on each hospital floor for inpatient medication dispensing.
The pharmacy stores team is responsible for them all.
Pharmacy Stores Team Responsibility:
- Maintain stocks and manage inventory.
- Ordering new supplies when necessary.
- Keeping inventory areas organized.
- Following up on rate of stock consumption and reporting and drug shortages.
- Searching for drug substitutes in case of shortage.
- Coordinating between drug purchasing department and the pharmacy.
- Inspecting any drugs purchased by the hospital.
- Informing other pharmacists of any new drug or new drug concentrations.
- Maintain each Pyxis station drugs quantities and calculate rates of consumption.
- Attending the medication committee for selecting new drugs.
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